Antiprotestantisme et antisémitisme à la fin du XIXe siècle

The Law on the Freedom of the Press of 1881 went together with the development of an antiprotestantism—a ‘forgotten hatred’—which preceded the ‘giant tree’ of antisemitism and accompanied it at the time of ‘The Ralliement’ and the Dreyfus Affair. The description and comparison of these two hatreds, each of which had a relative autonomy with respect to the other, opens up several new avenues of study. This article examines in particular the dividing line between criticism and hateful stigmatization, the ambivalence of Bernanos’s remark that “Hitler has forever given antisemitism a bad name,” and, more generally, the way in which the ‘fear of the other’ oriented an era’s entire social debate, including the discourse of the opponents of the ‘doctrines of hate.’