There is no consensus in current scholarship on the extent of Luther’s influence on Calvin. While earlier interpretations bear traces of national identities, today’s scholars focus on the question of the unity of “the” Reformation. The influence of Melanchthon has rightly been weighted more heavily in recent decades. At the same time, it is obvious that there was an intensive reception of Luther in the circles of biblical humanists around Jacques Lefèvre d’Etaples and Gérard Roussel. This is evidenced in, among other things, the early distribution of Luther’s writings in France. It is in this context that Calvin’s reception of Luther has to be interpreted. In his early texts, there are unquestionably references to the Wittenberg Reformer, including literal quotations from Luther, especially with regard to the doctrine of the sacraments and the interpretation of the Decalogue.